It’s happened to the best of us, we sit in front of the TV on a Sunday afternoon with the honest intention of only watching one or two episodes of that cool new Netflix show. After that, we earnestly promise ourselves, we will get lots of other, much more productive things done. Flash forward to 16 hours later, you’re still on your couch, wiping tears from your eyes, as the credits scroll on the final episode of that same new series. You look around you, aghast at the empty crisp packets, sweet wrappers, and empty mugs that sit in idle judgement. You’ve lost an entire day to Netflix. But what exactly is happening to our neurotransmitters when we binge watch something?     The First Stages Of Binging As soon as you switch on your TV, what ever room you are in will be filled with light and sound. When you sit down to watch any show, no two moments will be exactly the same. Scenes change rapidly from one second to the next. Your brain recognises this as continually altering audiovisual stimuli. A function within the brain known as ‘the orienting response’, means that our brains are programmed to automatically take notice of any new stimulus within our immediate environment. So, essentially, when we watch TV, our brains are in a constant state of arousal. This enables us to watch TV for long periods, without the brain ever tiring or getting bored By The End Of Episode One Many studies have shown that by the time you reach the end of the first episode of a show, all brain activity has shifted from the left hemisphere of the brain to the right. In other words, you have switched from logic to emotion. This switch is coincided with the release of endorphins. This raises the serotonin levels in your brain and boosts your mood and overall sense of well-being. An increased level of serotonin is the hallmark of all addictive, habit-forming behaviour. Endorphins are also known to induce a relaxation state. The heart rate slows, breathing regulates and brain activity slows right down. This is sometimes referred to by scientists as your ‘reptilian brain’, where you are reduced to the most basic of cognitive function and awareness. This is known as ‘automatic attention’: everything is washing over you in an endorphin fueled haze. The literal meaning of ‘Netflix and chill’ After A Few Hours After a number of hours fixed in front of a TV screen, we eventually move from the automatic attention phase to whats known as the ‘controlled attention’ phase. During this phase your brain becomes slightly more active. It occurs most frequently when we have been watching the same show for a number of hours. It involves the connections our brain makes with characters and situations we see on screen. Very engrossing scenes or characters we feel very strongly about will trigger this phase. Cognitive response happens in perpetuity, and these two neural states are fluctuating constants. While this fluctuation is happening, the ever changing content of what we are watching is lighting up the brain’s synapses and triggering emotional responses. This is why, for example, we feel genuine sadness if our favourite character is going through an onscreen trauma. The Aftermath When you finally get around to turning off the the TV, or laptop, or what ever device you use to watch, you might find that you are tired and irritable. This is because, like any addictive substance, once you stop taking it, your endorphin levels drop. You then experience an emotional and physical crash. You can feel exhausted, experience low levels of energy and motivation, and even feel slightly depressed. The residual feelings you had at the end of what ever the last thing you watched was can linger. This could mean lingering warm and fuzzy feelings after watching something like Queer Eye. But, it could also mean lingering feelings of violence and aggression, if the last thing you watched was something like El Chapo! Always Binge Responsibly The best way to avoid any of the negative effects of binge watching is to stick to a TV time limit. This is easier said than done, especially when each episode ends on a cliff hanger, but setting timers or alarms is a good way to ween yourself off your Netflix addiction. Also make sure that you are allocating enough time to all of your other interests too. If you don’t already have other hobbies, take up a new one. Spread your spare time evenly between all of your activities. That way you can maintain a healthy equilibrium between active and non active past times. So remember, folks, it’s fun to watch, but try to do it in moderation! #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper { display: none; }
The best word of advice would be: don’t. Watching a TV show, let alone one with already 67 episodes released (that’s 63 hours to watch), is a complete waste of your precious time on Earth. Think about everything else you could do. Obviously, this is even worse if you have watched it before. Are you going to make the same mistake twice?! (Note that this doesn’t apply to FRIENDS. Re-watching FRIENDS for the 42nd time is always a good idea, but we’ll get back to that.) If you’re going for it, regardless of how useless, here’s what you should probably do.   Make it useful. If you’re going to watch all these episodes for the first, second or third time, don’t you dare ask “ Wait, who’s that again?” when the next season comes out. Be efficient. Grab a pen and a piece of paper. Write down all the important characters on it, their house, and what happens to them in each season. Then lose it and do the same thing on your phone. If this is your first time, it might spare you the re-watching. If this is your third time, seek medical help: your memory is broken.   Spread the word. If you want to make the experience even a tiny bit enjoyable, you’ll have to try to watch the show with a fresh eye. What’s a better way to do so than using this time-consuming hobby to ask a friend who’s been lucky enough to avoid all the GoT mania to join you? Plus if you’ve already been forced to watch it once, you’ll feel superior, omniscient, and if you can’t answer their question, just say “I don’t want to spoil it for you”. Don’t get attached. Even if you’ve been lucky enough to avoid all the spoilers, you just know that people die in that show. If anyone seems suspiciously nice, beautiful, or makes it enjoyable to watch the series, don’t be naïve: they will be dead before the end of the season. Really, even them?! Oh yes, really. Valar morghulis.* Now enjoy all the blood, the incest, and pray with us that one day this nonsense comes to an end. *« All men must die. » in high valyrian. #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper {display: none;}
Morbid fascination is an intrinsic part of the human condition. It could be argued that it is this curiosity that heightens our sense of suspicion and prudence, and serves to make us more vigilant in dubious situations. As a result of this proclivity, vicious evil doers, like Ted Bundy and Charles Manson, have found their way into the collective psyche, and everybody knows their names, and are familiar with their crimes. A 2014 study estimated that, at any given time, there are between 25 and 50 active serial killers in operation in the United States. Serial killers seem to be as much a part of our society as the law makers, and the peace keepers are. With this in mind, who, aside from the Bundys’ and Mansons’ are you aware of? If you are interested in whetting your macabre appetite, read on. We have compiled a list of some of the most barbarous, perverse and brutal serial killers ever caught, but who failed to achieve the infamy of the aforementioned psychos and sociopaths. Be warned, what you are about to read is both 100% true and 100% unsettling. Readers should continue on with caution, this is not for the faint of heart, and definitely not for younger readers. Robert ‘Willy’ Pickton Canadian serial killer Robert Pickton is described as being one of the worst serial killers in the world. He was a pig farmer based in Port Coquitlam, in British Columbia, and his crimes are known as The Pig Farm Murders. Outwardly quiet and introverted, Pickton was harborouing a terrible and savage secret. By the time of his arrest in 2002 he had viciously butchered 49 women on his farm, before grounding their remains into mince, at a meat rendering plant. Most of it was fed to his pigs, however, he sold some of it for human consumption. The depraved killer was arrested in 2002, after items belonging to a number of missing women were found on his farm. Officers made the discovery after a chance visit to the farm, in search of illegal firearms. Following his arrest, DNA of at least 26 women who had been reported missing were found at the property. Many of these women were thought to be prostitutes who Pickton had picked up in Vancouver’s Red Light District. It is alleged that he brought them back to his farm to have sex, before brutally murdering them. He unintentionally confessed to the murders after he was put in a cell with an undercover police officer. Irritated at being caught, he complained to his cellmate: “I made my own grave by being sloppy. Doesn’t that just kick you in the ass now. I was just gonna [expletive] do one more, make it even, I wanted one more to make the big 5-0.” Alexander Pichushkin Alexander Pichushkin is a Russian serial killer nicknamed The Chessboard Killer. He was caught in 2007, in Moscow, and convicted of killing 48 people. During the investigation, detectives found a chessboard with dates on all but two of the squares. These dates were connected to the murders Pichushkin had already committed. Pichushkin said he wanted to kill one person for each of the 64 squares on a chessboard, and crossed out a square for every kill, earning him his nickname. At the time, Russian authorities considered reinstating the death penalty, due to the gruesomeness and number of murders. Pichushkin targeted the weak, elderly and hopeless. He would lure his victims to a local park, to reportedly drink with him at his dead dog’s grave. He would then wait until his intended victim was drunk, then he would begin his attack. He would hit them repeatedly with a blunt object until they were dead or lost consciousness.  He would then, often, throw his victims into a sewer pit. On occasion, some of his tragic victims were alive when thrown in, and died from drowning, rather than from blunt force trauma. Over time, Pichushkin’s attacks grew even more savage. He began leaving a broken vodka bottle, protruding from the skulls of some of his victims. He also became more lackadaisical when it came to disposing of the bodies. He left many of them out in the open, without bothering to try to conceal them. Authorities finally caught up with Pichushkin in June 2006, after he murdered a female colleague from his job at a supermarket. She had left a note for her son to tell him that she was taking a walk with Pichushkin. Chillingly, Pichushkin’s confession was aired on Russian television. In it, he went into great detail about his need to kill, he said: “For me, a life without murder is like a life without food for you.” He also later claimed that there were in fact more than 48 murders. He said that he had in fact killed 61 or 63 people, (his story varied), On this he said: “I thought it would be unfair to forget about the other 11 people.” Donald Henry ‘Pee-Wee’ Gaskins Donald Henry Gaskins, known as Pee Wee Gaskins, has gone down in the annals of serial killer history as the most prolific killer South Carolina has ever known. He was executed in 1991 by electric chair, after being convicted of 9 murders, however it is thought that he murdered far more people than that. His own claims bring his death toll to over 100 people, and a litany of other vile and depraved crimes can also be attributed to this seemingly unassuming man. Up until 1968, Gaskins spent most of his life in and out of prison for various crimes, from theft to gang rape. In 1969 he moved to the town of Sumter in South Carolina, and it is here that he would begin his true reign of terror. His first murder in Sumter was a hitchhiker that he picked up, tortured, and murdered, then sunk her body in a local swamp.  In the book he wrote in prison, detailing his life and crimes, he wrote: “All I could think about is how I could do anything I wanted to her.” This woman was the first of many in what Gaskins referred to as his ‘coastal kills’. He would  torture and mutilate his victims, while attempting to keep them alive for as long as possible. He confessed to killing these victims using a variety of methods including stabbing, suffocation, mutilation, and even claimed to have cannibalized some of them. He would go on to confess to over 80 of these types of murders, although none of these claims have ever been corroborated.  Then, in 1970, Gaskins committed the first of his so-called ‘serious murders,  which were people  he knew and killed for personal reasons. Some of these victims included his own niece, Janice Kirby, aged 15, and her friend Patricia Ann Alsbrook, aged 17. He beat both of the girls to death, after attempting to sexually assault them. One of his most shocking murders was that of two of his neighbours, Doreen Dempsey, who was 23 and pregnant, and her two year old daughter. He drove Doreen and her little girl out to a secluded, wooded area, and violently raped, sodomized, and killed both her and her little girl. Gaskins was eventually arrested in 1975, and was found guilty in 1976, and sentenced to death. However, this was later commuted to life in prison when the South Carolina General Assembly’s 1974 ruling on capital punishment was changed to conform to the U.S. Supreme Court guidelines for the death penalty in other states. On September 2, 1982, Gaskins committed another murder. While incarcerated in the high security block at the South Carolina Correctional Institution, Gaskins killed a death row inmate named Rudolph Tyner, he was tried for the Tyner’s murder and sentenced to death. While on death row, Gaskins told his life story to a journalist named Wilton Earle. He claimed to have committed between 100 and 110 murders, however, law enforcement sources found his claims impossible to verify. Patrick Kearney, ‘The Trashbag Killer’ In Los Angeles, in the mid 70’s, Homosexual men were being murdered and dumped in trashbags along the highways between LA and the Mexican border. The investigation centered around Patrick Wayne Kearney, an electronics engineer from LA. Kearney would eventually end his murder spree, when he walked into the Redondo Beach police station, and gave himself up. He plead guilty to killing three men, and was sentenced to life in prison, however, police knew there was much more to Kearney’s story than met the eye. They offered him a no death penalty deal, in exchange for a complete list of victims. Shockingly, it was worse than they had imagined, and Kearney initially confessed to eighteen more killings. He would later admit to a further eleven murders, which would bring his total to 32 killings. Kearney’s first known murder victim was an unidentified 19-year-old man, in 1962. Kearney claimed that he took the young man to a secluded area on his motorcycle, shot him in the head, and proceeded to engage in acts of necrophilia with the man’s corpse. Kearney would mostly pick up male hitchhikers, or homosexual men from gay bars. He would almost always shoot them in the temple, above the ear, with a .22-caliber derringer.  After murdering them, he would take the bodies to a secluded place, and engage in acts of necrophilia, then take them home, where they would be sodomized with X-Acto knives. They were then mutilated, and dismembered with hacksaws. He would dispose of the bodies in various ways, including, dumping them in trash bags, earning him his nick name. He would also leave them out for wild animals to eat, throw them off cliffs into local creeks and would even drain some of the bodies of all their blood, to eliminate odors. Kearney, now 79, continues to serve his life sentence at Mule Creek State Prison, California. Danny Rolling, ‘The Gainesville Ripper’ Known as the Gainesville Ripper, Danny Rolling murdered four University of Florida students and a Santa Fe Community College student in their apartments in 1990. He is known to have decapitated one victim, posed with the bodies, and removed skin and body parts and arranged the murder scenes using props that included broken mirrors. Rolling’s reign of terror began when he broke into the apartment of 17-year-old university freshmen Sonja Larson and Christina Powell. They were found mutilated and stabbed to death. He had raped both women, one after she was dead. The next day, Rolling killed Christa Hoyt, 18. Her body was found propped up, sitting on her bed bent over at the waist. Rolling had sliced off her nipples and left them on the bed next to her, and police discovered that her torso was sliced open, from her chest to her pubic bone. Her severed head perched on a shelf across the room. Two days later, Rolling killed roommates Tracy Paules and Manuel Taboada, both 23. Rolling remained at large until September 8, when he was arrested after a botched robbery in the central Florida town of Ocala. He was later linked by DNA to three more killings in Shreveport, Louisiana, in 1989. He was not charged in the Gainesville slayings until 1992, while serving a life sentence for armed robbery and other crimes. He pleaded guilty to all five murders as the jury was being selected for trial in 1994. He attributed his behavior to abuse by his father, a police officer, and to an evil alter ego. In prison, he drew disturbing pictures and wrote a graphic book, ‘The Making of a Serial Killer’, with a woman who was his fiancée for a time. Rolling was executed by lethal injection at Florida State Prison on October 25, 2006 Arthur John Shawcross Arthur John Shawcross was an American serial killer who was in operation  between 1972 and 1990 around Rochester, New York. Shawcross is known to have killed at least 14 people, as well as being a known cannibal and mutilator. He was also known as, ‘The Genesee River Killer’  and ‘The Rochester Strangler’, all due to how he would carry out his murders and where he would frequently dump the bodies of his victims. In 1967 he was drafted by the US Army at age 21. He served one tour in Vietnam, and loved to brag about the  violent, gruesome atrocities he committed, like raping and cannibalizing children and, according to a police interview: “beheading mama-sans and nailing their heads to trees as a warning to the Vietcong.” After his release and discharge from the army, Shawcross and his second wife would move to Clayton, New York, where Shawcross would terrorize the surrounding counties, until his final arrest. In the Spring of 1972, 10-year-old Jack Owen Blake disappeared after going out to play near the Cloverdale apartments, where Shawcross lived. Shawcross had gone fishing with the boy a few days earlier, but denied knowing where he was. When Jack’s body was eventually found (after Shawcross’s arrest) months later, he had been suffocated, mutilated, and molested. Shawcross would later admit to luring the boy into the woods, forcing him to strip naked and run, before murdering him, and consuming his heart and genitals. Months after Jack’s murder, 8-year-old Karen Ann Hill disappeared, while on a Labor Day vacation with her mother. Her body was found under a bridge near the Black River, and she had been raped, mutilated and strangled. After reports surfaced detailing that Shawcross had been seen with Karen before she disappeared, and he was later seen eating ice cream cones, on the bridge where the body was found, Shawcross was brought in for questioning. After being arrested for both children’s murder, Shawcross confessed, and agreed to reveal the location of Jack’s body, in order to have his charges dropped from homicide to manslaughter. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison, but would only serve 12. Unfortunately, staff and social workers made the call to grant him parole, stating he was: “no longer dangerous”, despite numerous psychiatrists warning that he was a schizoid psychopath. His parole officer would later be quoted as saying: “At the risk of being melodramatic, the writer considers this mant to be possibly the most dangerous individual to be released to this community for many years.” These words would ring tragically true when in 1988, Shawcross began a bloody, depraved murder campaign, that would claim 11 victims. Most were prostitutes and all were strangled and battered to death. They were also posthumously mutilated, and sexually assaulted.  After the last victim’s body was found in January 1990, the police decided not to remove it and instead keep surveillance on the area. Based on a psychological profile that suggested the killer would return to the scene of the crime, police figured this would be the best way to catch their killer. Sure enough, Shawcross was spotted masturbating as he sat in his car, on a bridge over the creek in which the body of his final victim was floating. He was arrested and eventually confessed in custody. In November 1990, Shawcross was tried for 10 murders in Monroe County. He was found guilty and sentenced to 250 years imprisonment. On November 10th, 2008 Shawcross complained to officers about a pain in his leg. He was taken to the Albany Medical Center where he went into cardiac arrest and died that night. Louis Garavito In 1999, Luis Alfredo Garavito Cubillos was arrested in Colombia and he confessed to murdering 140 children. He was charged with killing 172 altogether, but some of the cases are still ongoing. It’s thought he could have been responsible for hundreds more deaths, with the number potentially estimated as being higher than 400.  Better known as “La Bestia” or “The Beast”, Luis Alfredo Garavito Cubillos was one of the most ruthless serial killers of all time. Garavito’s victims were poor children, peasant children, or street children, between the ages of 6 and 16. He would  approach them on the street or countryside and offer them gifts or small amounts of money.  Once he had gained their trust, he would take them for a walk, and as soon as they began to get tired, he would pounce. He would rape them, slit their throats and dismember the corpses. As if this wasn’t bad enough, he would often mutilate the corpses, and many of the bodies found showed signs of prolonged torture and abuse.  In 1997, police uncovered a mass grave. Suddenly, a widespread investigation into the missing children began. In February 1998, the bodies of 2 naked children were discovered lying next to each other on a hill in Genoa, Colombia. The next day, another child’s naked body was found, just a few meters away. Garavito was captured on 22 April 1999. He confessed to murdering 140 children. However, he is still under investigation for the murder of 172 children in more than 59 towns in Colombia. During his imprisonment, Garavito helped police to find the bodies of his victims. This, along with his confessions, allowed him to win a reduction in sentence by 8 years, thereby making the effective sentence 22 years. Colombian law does not have life imprisonment or death penalty options, and the possibility of serial killings was completely ignored in Colombian law. However, with increased public unrest, the law was revisited, and the maximum sentence for murder was increased to 60 years of imprisonment. Joseph James DeAngelo, ‘The Golden State Killer’, and ‘The East Area Rapist’ The Golden State Killer is a serial killer, rapist, and burglar who committed at least 13 murders, more than 50 rapes, and over 100 burglaries in California from 1974 to 1986. What was initially a search for the East Area Rapist, ended up being a 40-year manhunt for a killer, rapist and home invader. The reawakening of this cold case decades later led to the April 2018 arrest of suspect Joseph James DeAngelo, now dubbed as the Golden State Killer. DeAngelo was born in New York but went to Folsom High School, in suburban Sacramento, and was a former California Police Officer.  In 2016, around the 40th anniversary of the first known attack, the search for the culprit of a suspected 12 homicides and about 50 rapes was renewed. Thanks to the advancement of DNA techniques and databases, DNA from a discarded item, and genetic information on a consumer genealogy website, guided police to the missing piece with DeAngelo as the suspect. DNA evidence linked the Golden State Killer to eight murders in Goleta, Ventura, Dana Point and Irvine; two other murders in Goleta, were lacking DNA evidence, but were linked by the killers usual modus operandi. His initial modus operandi was to stalk middle-class neighborhoods at night, in search of women who were alone in one-storey homes, usually near a school, creek, trail or other open space, that would provide a quick escape. He was seen a number of times, but always successfully fled; on one occasion, he shot and seriously wounded a young pursuer. Although he originally targeted women alone in their homes or with children, he eventually evolved to attacking couples. He would break in through a window or sliding glass door and awaken the sleeping occupants with a flashlight He would then begin threatening them with a handgun. Victims were bound with ligatures, and gagged. The male victim was beaten and left in a different room, while the female victim would be raped repeatedly for hours. In 1979, he moved on from rape, and began to murder his victims by gunshot or bludgeoning. After 1986 the case would go cold, until April 24, 2018, when the Sacramento County Sheriff’s Department arrested 72-year-old Joseph James DeAngelo in connection with the crimes. DeAngelo, was charged with eight counts of first-degree murder. On May 10, the Santa Barbara County District Attorney’s office charged DeAngelo with four additional counts of first-degree murder. Unfortunately, DeAngelo cannot be charged with rapes due to the statute of limitations expiring for those offenses. Identification of DeAngelo had begun four months earlier when officials uploaded the killer’s DNA profile from a Ventura County rape kit to a personal genomics website. The website identified 10 to 20 distant relatives of the Golden State Killer, from whom a team of five investigators working with genealogist Barbara Rae-Venter, constructed a large family tree. They identified two suspects in the case (one of whom was ruled out by a relative’s DNA test), leaving DeAngelo the main suspect.  
 Rick and Morty is the animated, high concept, Sci-Fi rigmarole that we all love. But, far from the cartoonish nonsense that it appears to be at first glance, there are plenty of real science facts and theories behind what we see in the show. While most of the show is strictly in the realms of fiction, there are some concepts that the writers utilise regularly that have their basis in established science facts. Here, we take a look at some of the real science principles that form the basis of some of the concepts in Rick and Morty. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle In the  episode, A Rickle In Time, Rick, Morty and Summer manage to mess up the whole time frame of all universes, and split time up into many different pieces. They then have to try to find a way to solidify time into one unified piece. This actually employs the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. What Einstein’s E=mc2 is to relativity theory, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is to quantum mechanics. It states that it is impossible to know, simultaneously, the exact position and momentum of a particle. That is, the more exactly the position is determined, the less known the momentum, and vice versa. Essentially by trying to measure their exact place and speed in space and time, Rick, Morty and Summer removed themselves from time all together. The Many World Theory A cornerstone of the Rick and Morty universe is that there are an infinite number of universes, with an infinite number of Ricks, and an infinite number of Mortys. Therefore, nothing anyone says or does actually matters.  It’s ultimately the source of Rick’s extreme existentialism. But this has a basis in fact. There exists an interpretation of quantum-mechanics, (the  fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles), known as the Many-Worlds Interpretation. This suggests that there are many worlds which exist, occupying the same space and time, yet parallel to our own. The existence of the other worlds makes it possible to remove randomness and action, at a distance, from quantum theory, and thus, from all physics. If this were true, it would suggest that nothing anyone did mattered, and that the laws of physics are constant, and unaffected by outside forces. The theory is also referred to as MWI, the Everett interpretation, the theory of the universal wave function, many-universes interpretation, multiverse theory or just many-worlds. The original relative state formulation is due to Hugh Everett in 1957. The Simulated Universe Theory In the episode: M. Night Shaym-Aliens, Rick and Morty try to get to the bottom of a mystery, only to find themselves trapped on an alien spaceship. These aliens are trying to find the formula for concentrated dark matter, and it turns out that Rick and a completely unaware Jerry have been trapped inside a simulation, inside another simulation. While this is not a direct interpretation of it, it does have a grounding in an existing scientific theory known as the Simulated Universe Theory. This theory suggests that the universe we all currently occupy is in fact a giant simulation, by a quantum computer. It would be indistinguishable from true reality, and potentially, could contain conscious minds, which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. It is a theory that dates all the way back to French philosopher and mathematician, René Descartes, in the 1600’s, when he famously philosophized that the people he saw out his bedroom window could in fact be metal machines disguised as humans. More recently, though, the theory has been given some level of credence by Elon Musk, who firmly believes that reality is a simulation created by a super intelligence. Hive Mind In the episode Auto-Erotic Assimilation, we get introduced to Unity. Unity is Rick’s ex-girlfriend, but also, she is an assimilating hive-mind, and has taken control of an entire planet. Every person on the planet thinks with one unified mind. This has its basis in science fact rather than science fiction as hive minds can be found readily in nature. For example, honeybees and ants operate in colonies that function as a hive mind. Singularly they don’t get a lot done, but as a collective colony, both of these creatures do remarkable things. Their communication is based on hormones and pheromones. It also exists to a degree in humans, where people will begin to think with what is referred to as a collective consciousness. This is how social constructs develop into societal norms, and how certain practices and behaviours are deemed as either acceptable or unacceptable. There are also more sinister implications to this: a certain level of brainwashing of the mass majorities, at the hands of our self appointed systems of hierarchy, becomes normalised. This can lead to governmental control becoming less democratic and more absolute. Schrödinger’s Cat Also taken from the episode A Rickle In Time is the reference to Schrödinger’s Cat. In this episode, as time begins to rip itself apart, we see lots of cats just floating around. This is a nod to a very famous physics theory, that forms the basis of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle previously mentioned. Schrödinger’s cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935. It illustrates what he saw as the problem with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics when applied to everyday objects. In his theoretical experiment, a living cat is placed into a steel chamber along with a hammer, a vial of hydrocyanic acid, and a very small amount of radioactive substance. If even a single atom of the radioactive substance decays during the test period, a relay mechanism will trip the hammer, which will in turn, break the vial of poisonous gas and cause the cat to die. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum physics, which stated that, essentially, nothing is real until it is observed, and all possible states and outcomes exists simultaneously until the point of observation,  the cat would be both alive and dead at the same time. It would remain this way until someone opened the box to find what state the cat was in.  Schrödinger’s experiment counteracts that, by demonstrating that the cat was either dead or alive regardless of whether or not it was being observed. The Mechanics Of Rabies In the episode Total Rickall, the Smith family household has been infested by parasites, that feed off brainwaves and alter perception. They masquerade as various characters, but they change everyone’s perceptions, and convince them that they have been a valued member of the family forever, implanting false memories and emotions. This is a trait that is found in the Rabies disease. Rabies affects the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. These brain structures control memory, fear, and emotion. Rabies can even alter the ways in which you release serotonin. The disease essentially hijacks the brains own neurons, and then attacks it. Basically, rabies turns your own brain against you. Much like the parasites did in this episode. Nazi Experimentation On Dogs In Lawnmower Dog, Rick gives the family dog a helmet that enables him to speak. He grows super intelligent, and eventually causes a canine uprising, where dogs take over the world. While none of that is based on any real science, it could have been inspired by Nazi experiments from the 1930’s. The Hundesprechschule Asra was an institution for performing dogs that existed in Leutenberg, Thuringia, Germany, from 1930 until near the end of World War II. It contained famous dogs that appeared to be able to speak certain words. The institute was the site of Nazi experimentation and animal research. The idea behind this was to create a battalion of talking dogs. The idea, despite being completely bonkers, was to glean greater control over the hounds, and to add extra force to their military units. These experiments were taking place at the same time as Nazi experimentation on humans, in an attempt to create a super army of immeasurable force. Pregnant Robots In Raising Gazorpazorp, Morty gets an alien sex robot, who he accidentally impregnates, and winds up being the father to an alien/human hybrid baby. Probably the most outlandish piece of science fact on this list is that a pregnant robot actually exists in the real world. It is a life sized blond haired android, that simulates the pertinent vital signs and exports of a pregnant woman, including blood and urine. It has been used as a teaching tool all around the world, and has even had an emergency cesarean section performed on it. It even gives birth to a tiny little robot baby. Seriously.  
We all have that one show that we obsess over. That TV show that no matter how many times you watch it, still fills you with joy and you find something new in it each time. Many of us also like to theorize on what certain aspects of the show could mean, what connections it might have to a broader world, or even, if what we are being shown is really the full story. Here we have some fan theories for some of the most beloved TV shows from the last few decades, some of them make so much sense they might even be true! Friends – Phoebe’s Imaginary Friends This one is a real tear jerker. Fans of the beloved 90’s sitcom have theorized that, rather than being a part of the close knit group of friends, that Phoebe is in fact, a homeless addict. She lives on the streets and stares in at the rest of the group of friends, as they meet for coffee each day in Central Perk. Each of them has got different names than what we are shown, different lives, different personalities. Everything we have watched was merely the imagined life of a down and out. The theory even goes so far as to offer  an alternate ending to the show, a scene where we see the camera pan out from the group, and focus on the bedraggled Phoebe, she looks on at the group as one of them says from inside the coffee shop, isn’t that the crazy lady that always stares at us. The camera follows her along the street where she looks into a mirror in a shop window, she stares at that for a moment, the camera pans up to reveal the shops name to be ‘Ursula’s’. We then see her bedding down for the night on the park bench where she sleeps every night. Thankfully the shows creators have denied this is the case, but it would make a really interesting twist. The Fresh Prince Of Bel Air – The Prince Is Dead This theory claims that The Fresh Prince is actually dead and everything we see is his heaven. The show ran from 1990 to 1996, and each episode has the famous theme song that states: “There’s a couple of guys who were up to no good, starting making trouble in my neighbourhood, I got in one little fight and my mom got scared she said; you’re moving with your auntie and uncle to Bel Air”. Well the theory goes that he never made it out of that fight alive.  He died and the Bel-Air mansion is all a part of his own personal heaven. The cab ride described in the song too, is important, as the cab driver is supposed to be God, transporting him from one world to the next. With fans theorizing that the reason we see his parents so infrequently is because he only gets to see manifestations of them every time they visit his grave. Murder She Wrote – Jessica Fletcher Is A Serial Killer Murder She Wrote is everyone’s favourite guilty pleasure. You know those jokes you hear about never trusting a jogger because they’re the ones who always find the dead bodies. Well, what would you say about a crime novelist who always happens to be at the scene of murder. There were 12 seasons of Murder She Wrote and that equates to almost 300 killings that Fletcher encounters. Surely that amounts to much more than a coincidence. So there is a theory out there that suggests that Jessica Fletcher is in fact a crazed killer who murders as a research for her stories. The Flintstones – Takes Place After The Jetsons Everyone assumes that The Flintstones are in the past and The Jetsons are in the future, but what if The Jetsons are in the future, and The Flintstones is set in a further ahead future than that? According to a fan theory first put forward on Cracked.com, The Flintstones exist in a post-apocalyptic world that takes place after the The Jetsons. The post-apocalyptic theory suggests that a nuclear war destroyed the world which led to modern society being wiped out and replaced with a primitive form of culture. After several hundred years, the Flintstones, residents of Bedrock, and the surrounding cities are what humanity has managed to rebuild. Thus, the Jetsons’s world might have even pre-dated the Flintstones’s world – that is, all the futuristic technology, robots, and rockets of the Jetsons’ world have collapsed, leaving the Flintstones with the remnants of high-tech devices, but with none of the fancy trappings.It is also suggested that the dinosaurs we see in the Flintstones are mutated lizards from the nuclear fallout. Also, this would account for the super intelligent animals that are able to run devices such as record players and televisions. Breaking Bad – The Breaking Dead A theory exists that Walter White’s crystal meth from Breaking Bad was what caused the walker outbreak in The Walking Dead. The theory first examines a time when Walking Dead character, Merle Dixon,  bought some Blue Sky, something we see on screen for ourselves,  in an episode in season 1.  Another fact the theory leans heavily on is the car that Walt buys for  Walt Jr. in Breaking Bad season 4. The car is identical to the one driven by Glenn in season 1 of The Walking Dead.  There is even more evidence where the car is related, when Walt brings the car back, he brings it back to Glenn’s Car Lot.  Furthermore, AMC has recently seemingly confirmed the connection. In an episode of spin-off series Fear the Walking Dead, attentive fans would have heard the song “Negro y Azul: The Ballad of Heisenberg” playing in the background, the same track which was featured in Breaking Bad, season two . Fear the Walking Dead showrunner Dave Ericksen confirmed its intentional placement. Stranger Things – Eleven Is The Monster Any fan of the show already knows all about the powers that Eleven possesses. But what if part of her powers was to manifest scary creatures to help her deal with all of the bad things that were happening to her as a little girl. We all know that the Upside Down is a sort of duplicate of the real world. Could her Upside Down doppelganger actually be the Demogorgon? This could explain how she is able to recognize both Will and Barb in pictures up in the real world—because her monster duplicate has seen them in the Upside Down. The fact that the monster resembles the Demogorgon from Dungeons & Dragons could be a clue to this being true.  According to the game, the Demogorgon is a two-headed creature that is in constant battle with itself. This suggests that while neither like one another, they need each other to survive. This is something that we see come to fruition in the finale of season 2, where it looks like Eleven defeats the monster, however in the next clip we see that the Upside Down is actually still there. Rugrats – The Babies Don’t Exist This theory states that none of the babies are actually real. They are all just figments of Angelica’s imagination and she invented them on account of her parents’ neglect.  Chuckie died with his mother, which explains how much of a nervous wreck his father was. Tommy was a stillborn baby, which explains why his father, Stu, was always in the basement making toys for the son he never had. The DeVilles had an abortion. To compensate for not knowing the sex of the baby, Angelica invented twins in her head, one boy, one girl, so: Phil and Lil. Susie is Angelica’s only friend, and plays along with her hallucinations so she doesn’t take away her only coping mechanism. Dil was the only baby who couldn’t speak like an adult because he was the only baby that wasn’t a figment of Angelica’s imagination. Saved By The Bell – Bayside High Is Zack’s Dream World Saved By The Bell was one of the greatest TV shows of the 90’s. At least, that’s what we all thought at the time. Before Saved By The Bell,  Zack Morris, Screech and Lisa were all in a Disney Channel teen sitcom called Good Morning Miss Bliss. After a 14-episode run, Good Morning, Miss Bliss was re-made for NBC. Some of the characters stayed on, while others were cast aside. The location changed, from John F. Kennedy Junior High School in Indiana to Bayside High School in California. That’s not all that changed, though, since Zack’s character changed somewhat from one show to the other.  Because of this, the theory exists that Saved By The Bell is nothing more than the escapist fantasy of Zack Morris. In Saved By The Bell, Zack is the coolest guy in school, when he originally was a complete dweeb. Fans think he made up an entire dream world in California, where he was popular, cool, charming, and a real hit with the ladies.
Usually, when you read a history article or story, it’s just facts and your imagination. These pictures will show you how these historic events looked like. They will make you feel like you were there. Here are historical photographs that capture some of the rarest moments in history that you have probably never seen before. Che Guevara and Fidel Castro fishing, 1960 Two of the most powerful men in Latin America fishing together off the coast of Cuba. German declaration of war against the United States Four days after the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States declaration of war against Japan, Adolf Hitler declared war against the USA on 11 December 1941. He made this decision in response to what was claimed to be a series of provocations by the United States government when the US was still officially neutral during World War II. Later that day, Franklin D. Roosevelt declared war on Germany. Pearl Harbor surprise attack, 1941 Several bombs hit the USS Shaw during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. 1868 : the transcontinental railroad in Nevada A native American overlooking the newly completed section of the transcontinental railroad in Nevada. Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali in 1964 Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali, then still named Cassius Clay, after Ali’s victory over Sonny Liston “The Gadget”, the first atomic bomb Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon. The Gadget was the first atomic bomb ever made and was tested at the Trinity Site in New Mexico, on July 16th, 1945. This atomic bomb had the same design as the Fat Man bomb later detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945. Soldiers in WWII Two American soldiers having a laugh during WWII. First selfie ever taken, 1900 This picture shows a female photographer and her Box Brownie. The Beatles before crossing Abbey Road, 1969 Just before crossing the road, this photo was taken in the opposite direction of the road than the one on the album cover. The First Photograph Taken on the Moon, 1969 Here is the first photo taken by Neil Armstrong after exiting Eagle, the landing module. An American marine exhibits ‘the thousand-yard stare’ Pvt Theodore J. Miller boards transport after two days of Battle on Eniwetok (Marshall Islands). Neil Armstrong eating his last earthly breakfast before launching to the moon, 1969 Here is Neil Armstrong enjoying his last breakfast before launching to the moon in 1969. Soccer team of British WWI soldiers wearing gas masks, 1916 British soldiers play football while wearing gas masks during WWI, somewhere in the north of France, 1916.   #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper { display: none; }
We all like to think we know stuff, don’t we? There is nothing more satisfying than being able to drop a few facts into a conversation and sit there with a smug grin while everyone looks at you in awe of your apparent wisdom. Well what if we told you that some of those facts were wrong? We have put together a list of some of the so-called facts we all thought we knew, but have recently been proven wrong. Quick, get your pen and paper out, you might want to take notes! Chameleons Change Colour For Camouflage Em…they don’t. They do change colour, that much is true, but it is not to blend in with their surroundings. Their reasons for colour-changing are actually more to do with communication with other chameleons and also to help maintain body temperature. Dinosaurs Were Scaly It was once thought that these great beasts of the past were giant scaly monsters. It was thought that their skin resembled that of the lizards we are familiar with today. However, recent discoveries suggest that over 30 species of non-avian dinosaurs actually had feathers. This has been proven either from direct fossilized evidence of feathers, or other indicators, such as quill knobs. Humans Only Use 10% Of Their Brains The origin of this myth is unclear, however it has been attributed to Einstein in the past. Despite scientists being repeatedly outspoken about this, it seems to linger on. While we do not use all of our brain all at once all of the time, we certainly do use all of our brain. The Great Wall Of China Can Be Seen From Space It is a rumour that has been circulating for decades, however, NASA has confirmed that, while there are many man made objects that are observable from space, The Great Wall isn’t one of them. Camels Store Water In Their Humps Again, unsure where this one started, but they do not store water in their humps. What they do store however, is fat. They use this fat as nourishment if there is no food about. Goldfish Have 3 Second Memory Spans This is one everyone has heard. However, in 2009 a team of scientists set out to disprove this theory, and disprove it they did. Through various experiments they proved that goldfish can remember things well past 3 seconds, and can even remember things for a few months. Blood Is Blue Inside Your Body This is a well known myth, although some of you may be surprised. It is said that because the veins are blue and they carry deoxygenated blood, that the blood itself is blue. This is untrue however, as blood is red regardless of how oxygen rich it is. Sugar Makes Children Hyper Many studies have proven this to be a myth. Tests conducted as far back as 1994 show that there is no proof that sugar will make your child hyperactive. Various other ingredients found in candy can have an effect on your children’s behaviour, though, and sugar is certainly not good for children. Cracking Your Knuckles Will Give You Arthritis This is completely untrue. The popping sound you hear when you crack your knuckles is in fact a displacement of air in the joint or supporting ligaments. So now you know, things you thought to be true are not, dinosaurs had feathers and you can crack your knuckles to your heart’s content! It just goes to show that science is continually changing and we are learning, disproving and proving things all the time.   #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper { display: none; }
Everyone likes to think that the bar they go to is ‘their’ bar. You like to feel like that bar staff are your friends and that they know you so well they have your drinks order down, and know where you like to sit. They might even know you by name. However, in order to get into this inner sanctum of bar staff acceptance, we must first have been good customers. Below is a list of some of the things you should avoid doing if you want to become one of those sacred, fabeled, ‘regulars’ in your favourite bar. Don’t Wave Your Money Around. This does not get you noticed sooner. The bartender will have his or her own system for noticing who comes next at the bar and the order in which to serve them. You waving your €20 in their face will only serve to get on their nerves, and the nerves of the other customers beside you at the bar. Never Click Your Fingers Apart from being just downright rude this is another tactic that won’t get you served any faster. The bartender is not a dog, and treating them as such will only leave you high and dry and waiting even longer to be served. Don’t Make Personal Comments Unless the bartender is your sister or brother or something like that, keep the personal comments to yourself. No bar staff member wants to hear, “you should smile more”, especially at the end of a 10 hour shift on their feet. It is also unacceptable to comment on their clothing or hair choices etc. Don’t Be Indecisive At The Bar When you do finally get served please try not to take another 30 minutes deciding what you want to order. There is literally no excuse for waiting in line to be served and not having already made up your mind about what you want before you get to the top of the queue. This is infuriating to bar staff so, definitely don’t do this. Don’t Stand In An Area That Is Marked As A Place You Won’t Get Served And if you do, you better not be expecting to actually get served there. You see it all the time, the end corner of a bar has a little sign on it that clearly states “please do not stand here” or “you will not get served if you stand here”. Yet time and again you see people standing there, waving their tenners and clicking their fingers trying to get the attention of the bar staff. This is a dick move, don’t do it.   Don’t Order One Minute Before Closing Everyone heard the last orders bell 15 or 20 minutes ago. So did you. You just decided to squeeze that last bit of faith in humanity out of the bar tender for the night didn’t you? You don’t need it, you will have to down it, and your hangover won’t thank you for it in the morning, so why don’t you just leave it. The bar staff can’t clean up or actually, you know, go home until you do, so, be nice. Don’t Ask For The Same Again Or The Usual At least not unless you have already achieved the elusive ‘regular’ status. This is something that can’t be rushed. Just because you have been in a bar twice before doesn’t mean the bar staff will remember you. As much as you would like to think that you were the most interesting thing about their Saturday night last week, so does every other punter. This has to be earned, you don’t have a usual until the barman asks you the golden question: “Will ye have your usual?”. Don’t Spill Drinks On The Bar An obvious one really, and sometimes it can’t be helped, but just please try to be careful. They are busy enough without having to clean up messes outside or on the bar. Please, it makes the whole bar sticky and gross for hours afterwards, and nobody wants that. Complaining About The Prices Chances are the Bar Staff think drinks are too expensive too. They have literally nothing to do with pricing so it is entirely pointless to complain to them about how expensive your pint is. They can’t change it even if they wanted to. Questioning Measures Don’t do this. They are trained in how to pour the perfect drink. They even have little silver measuring cups to make sure they don’t give you the wrong amount. Just because you have had 12 Vodka Red Bulls before this one, and can no longer taste the alcohol in your drinks, does not mean the bar staff have put less into your drink. Although at this point, if you can’t taste it anymore, maybe you’ve had enough.   So there you have it, some top tips to avoid being ‘That Guy’ at the bar. Always be nice to bar staff, remember, you’ve just walked in for a good night out but they are at work, on their feet, and extremely busy. Give them a break and cut them some slack, you never know, next time you go in they might even have your usual ready for you by the time you get to the bar.   #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper { display: none; }
Our favorite pals from TV shows often have a complex personality, that enables them to create enough action for the network to make billions on a 12 seasons show. However, if you take a closer look at them – and at humans in general – they all have some stereotypical features that can remind of us various things : our grandma, a boiling kettle, the sound of rain against a window…or zodiac signs. With all the commonly admitted zodiac sign characteristics, let’s try a little matching game. Aquarius Leslie Knope – Parks and Recreations Unlike Leos, you could actually rule de world. Great ideas and certain social skills can bring you far…if you don’t fall into some narcissistic pit. We know you know, Knope. Pisces Lito – Sense8 Ok, seriously, stop crying. For Pisces, it’s the end of the world 50 times a day. Unnecessarily exhausting. In Lito’s case there is a mad guy trying to capture and murder him and his cluster…but all the others, get a grip. Aries Max – Two Broke Girls Listening to your brilliant advice is not part of their agenda, as Aries will always do what THEY consider to be the best option. If you decide to hang out with them, make sure you can deal with their blunt honesty. Face it Caroline, you ARE in love with your father. Taurus Gabriela Solis – Desperate Housewives What do they want? Hot bodies, shiny cars, big houses and fame. That’s right Gabriela, you and your specie are materialistic demons, only driven by your own interest and profit. That’s alright, because you are all so good-looking. Gemini Marshall – How I met your Mother Ok, it’s not because you are always in a good mood and ready to have a laugh that you’re not a deep and complex person. The reason you’re not a deep and complex person is because you’re a Gemini. Stick to humour and don’t try to fake Virgos and Pisces’ tortured attitude – no one likes them anyway. Cancer Cersei, Game of Thrones Family and sex first, the rest doesn’t really matter. Once a Cancer is sure their family are safe, they become these seduction machines that no one can resist. That’s until people put them in jail and throw vegetables at them. Leo Trish – Jessica Jones Aren’t you tired of spending hours in front of the mirror? We get it Leo, you’re beautiful and you need to be told so. Dominant, impatient but seriously lacking of common sense, Leos would rule the world is they had any idea on how to. Virgo Sheldon Cooper – The Big Bang Theory It’s less the genius aspect than the « sharing my feelings makes me sick » aspect we’re interested in here. Virgos tend to be talented, smart people, with an unbearable lack of social abilities. It’s ok Virgos, the world will not end if you decide to act like you have a heart. Libra Ted – How I met your Mother One can’t deny it : Libras are an awesome sign. Arty, but not enough to turn emo, just patient enough to act slightly submissive. Yes, Libras, all the other signs want and will hang out with you, take advantage of your awesome personality and then start dating zodiac’s narcissistic assholes. Scorpio King Joffrey – Game of Thrones Did someone say manipulative and sex-obsessed? There is no proof that our late King Geoffrey was actually born in November, but he sure has all the cons of an extreme Scorpio. It’s not like all the Scorpios are psychopaths, capricious and murderous…but yes, it is. However, awesome creativity in bed! Sagittarius Eleanor Shellstrop – The Good place Can’t focus on one project, keep promising you’ll become a better person with absolutely no result? Welcome to your own personal bad place, Sagittarius. You might be intriguing and fun to be around, but stop mistaking your recklessness for an adventurous spirit. Capricorn Quinn – Unreal Can you relax for a bit? Repeat: work isn’t everything. You might always be this way-too-work-focused person, and that’s fine. One might love you for this, except it will probably some kind of sadistic boss, instead of actual friends. If you have been offended by any of this, let us know what your sign is so we can add «touchy » right next to it. #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper { display: none; }
The best word of advice would be: don’t. Watching a TV show, let alone one with already 67 episodes released (that’s 63 hours to watch), is a complete waste of your precious time on Earth. Think about everything else you could do. Obviously, this is even worse if you have watched it before. Are you going to make the same mistake twice?! (Note that this doesn’t apply to FRIENDS. Re-watching FRIENDS for the 42nd time is always a good idea, but we’ll get back to that.) If you’re going for it, regardless of how useless, here’s what you should probably do.   Make it useful. If you’re going to watch all these episodes for the first, second or third time, don’t you dare ask “ Wait, who’s that again?” when the next season comes out. Be efficient. Grab a pen and a piece of paper. Write down all the important characters on it, their house, and what happens to them in each season. Then lose it and do the same thing on your phone. If this is your first time, it might spare you the re-watching. If this is your third time, seek medical help: your memory is broken.   Spread the word. If you want to make the experience even a tiny bit enjoyable, you’ll have to try to watch the show with a fresh eye. What’s a better way to do so than using this time-consuming hobby to ask a friend who’s been lucky enough to avoid all the GoT mania to join you? Plus if you’ve already been forced to watch it once, you’ll feel superior, omniscient, and if you can’t answer their question, just say “I don’t want to spoil it for you”. Make it a drinking game. If you’ve watched the show before and so did your friends, it doesn’t really matter if you miss a couple of scenes because you’re too drunk. If you haven’t, it doesn’t matter either. Use your binge-watching sessions as warm-ups for your nights out. This being said, the side effects might be that you’ll be craving alcohol everything you hear about the show. It’s ok, better be addicted to drinking than to a show that KILLS everyone you love. Also, if you have a urinary infection, make a cranberry juice drinking game. That’s a fast way to get better in no time. Don’t get attached. Even if you’ve been lucky enough to avoid all the spoilers, you just know that people die in that show. If anyone seems suspiciously nice, beautiful, or makes it enjoyable to watch the series, don’t be naïve: they will be dead before the end of the season. Really, even them?! Oh yes, really. Valar morghulis.* Now enjoy all the blood, the incest, and pray with us that one day this nonsense comes to an end. *« All men must die. » in high valyrian. #acp_paging_menu, .acp_wrapper {display: none;}